By Xavier Pastor

1992 marked the five hundredth anniversary of the ecu discovery of the Americas via Christopher Columbus. the main points of Columbus's ships - the Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta - stay misplaced to historians, for the ships have been outfitted sooner than the 1st manuals of shipbuilding have been written, and no documentation or representation has survived. however, broad learn has allowed the development of a couple of replicas through the years, and people inbuilt Spain in 1892 and 1927 are considered as one of the such a lot life like. the recent replicas equipped for the 1992 celebrations are definitely the main actual reconstructions but. decades of analysis through Jose Martinez-Hidalgo and his successors into the naos and caravels of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries has allowed a complete new perception into the layout and development of the well-known ships of Columbus.

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Extra info for The Ships of Christopher Columbus (Anatomy of the Ship)

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Capacity was at first given in terms of the number of tuns, lasts or botte that could actually be loaded into a ship's hold. Later, methods were developed for using hull dimensions to calculate precisely capacities in these units (and their local variants, of which there were many). The results were - and are - economically informative. The sizes of sailing warships were calculated in the same way, but the results are less helpful, for carrying capacity is a poor indicator of military potential.

Well suited for extended reaches on the same tack, their lateen rigs were not well suited for frequent tacking in constricted waters. cinnamon, from Ceylon (Sri Lanka), was the only significant exception - and there was a substantial trade in pepper with China. Otherwise, trade patterns and commodities resembled those of the Indian Ocean. The princely states that dominated the region politically considered commercial profit an important element of power and on occasion launched invasion fleets against one another.

Into hIs force. four galiots, 'all Chinazzo Veni e r mar ers and GALLEONS AND GALLEYS against the port of Chioggia, at the southern tip of the lagoons, intending to seize a blockading base from which to strangle Venice. Linking up with Paduan and Hungarian forces investing the lagoons by land, the Genoese fought their way into Brondolo and Lesser Chioggia in turn, storming Chioggia on the morning of 16 August. By evening, the flags of Hungary, Padua and Genoa flew above the plaza and Genoese bombards and trebuchets defended Chioggia's water approaches.

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