By J.-J. Tiercelin, K.-E. Lezzar (auth.), Eric O. Odada, Daniel O. Olago (eds.)

The moment overseas Symposium at the East African Lakes was once held from 10-15 January 2000 at membership Makokola at the southern shore of Lake Malawi. The symposium was once geared up by means of the overseas Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL), a examine consortium of African, ecu and North American scientists attracted to selling the investigations of African nice Lakes as information of environmental and climatic dynamics. Over 100 African, ecu and North American scientists with precise services within the tropical lakes participated within the symposium which featured compelling displays at the limnology, climatology, palaeoclimatology and biodiversity of the East African Lakes. it truly is their papers that contain this booklet. the big lakes of East Africa are vital typical assets which are seriously used by their bordering international locations for transportation, water provide, fisheries, waste disposal, activity and tourism. The lakes are detailed in lots of methods: they're delicate to climatic swap and their circulate dynamics, water-column chemistry and organic complexity range considerably from huge lakes at better latitudes; they've got lengthy, non-stop, excessive answer files of previous climatic switch; they usually have wealthy and various populations of endemic organisms. those exact homes and the importance of the palaeolimnological files call for and allure examine curiosity from round the world.

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Tectonic deformations continued during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene time interval, but with minor effects compared to the previous periods. , 1995; Yamba and Boven, 1998) (Figure 12). , in press), or the Green Crater Lake in the Naivasha Basin, Central Kenya Rift (Figure 1B). Among all these rift lakes formed during successive episodes of rifting, one exception is Lake Victoria, that is known to be relatively young as compared with the other large lakes occupying the East African Rift System (Figure 12).

1999). , 1998) (Figure 12). , 1980) (Figure 12). A progression in the age of the tectonic activity which affected the different basins is observed. Most of the basins remained stable since the Middle-Upper Pleistocene while Holocene to recent volcano-tectonic activity concentrated in the NW-trending Ghoubbet-Asal Rift, resulting in the formation of the saline Lake Asal (Gasse and Fontes, 1989) (Figure 12). , 1996). , 1997) (Figure 12). On the other hand, southward rift propagation along the Lake Tanganyika Rift resulted in the final morphology of the Mpulungu sub-basin at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika from ~2 Ma up to Present.

1978) (Figure 10A). 5 Ma) lava flows (Figures 6 and 10). Sediments, mainly diatomaceous tuffs and sometimes laminated shales, and some algal limestones demonstrate the existence of a quite extensive freshwater lake lying along the eastern foot of the active Tugen Hills faults (Pickford, 1978b). 3 Ma ended the life of the Lukeino Lake. 6 Ma (Martyn and Tobias, 1967; Hill, 1999). Two lakes were lying at the same time on both sides of the Kaparaina anticline. These are Lake Kipcherere to the west, along the faulted foot of the Tugen Hills, and Lake Chemeron to the east, facing the foot of the Laikipia Border Fault escarpment.

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