By Simen Andersen Øyen, Tone Lund-Olsen, Nora Sørensen Vaage

Technology and faith are frequently considered as dichotomies. yet even supposing our modern society is usually perceived as a clarification procedure, we nonetheless want large, metaphysical ideals outdoor of what will be confirmed empirically. Rituals and emblems stay on the center of contemporary existence. Do our innovations of technological know-how and faith require revitalization? Can technology itself be thought of a faith, a trust, or an ideology? Science's authority and status permits little within the means of trade ways now not based in empirical technological know-how. it isn't strange to think that expertise and technological know-how will clear up the world's primary difficulties. Has fact been colonized through technology? Have medical disciplines develop into so really expert and "operationally closed" that they have got developed boundaries to different disciplines in addition to most people? The writers of this publication got down to examine no matter if the symbols of academia may perhaps from time to time tackle a top quality of sacrality, even if the rule of thumb of specialists could be stated to have the nature of a "priesthood of knowledge", no matter if faith has a spot in medical contexts, and a range of different questions relating technological know-how and its family to spiritual trust.

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42 SACRED SCIENCE? Chapter 3: What is epistocracy? “modernized” (Giddens 1991, Habermas 1984, 1987, Parsons 1971), have been heavily criticized, both for their affirmative normative subtext (see for example Meehan 1995), and from an empirical point of view, for overlooking significant variation (Eisenstadt 2002). Still, it is possible to distinguish, at least roughly, between societies that are institutionally and normatively differentiated – societies in which the economy, the family, the political system, law, civil society, science, religion and art constitute relatively separate spheres that operate according to different standards and different “inner logics”3 – and that have undergone what Talcott Parsons refers to as the three revolutions: the industrial, the democratic, and the meritocratic.

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Consider for example an expert group reporting on Norway’s relationship to the EU. A report authored by a group of lawyers would probably look very different from a report authored by political scientists or economists. Fourthly, to what extent are the knowers highly qualified specialists within a particular, strictly defined field; to what extent are they generalists considered to have general insights and competences? Consider, for example, a case where the government asks an expert group to report on unemployment; causes of unemployment, effects, and possible policies addressing it.

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