By Maurice Mufson, Frederick Sieber

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Pathophysiology: Pretest Self-Assessment and Review

PreTest is the scientific student’s so much dynamic weapon for acing the USMLE Step 1. nice for direction overview and checks, too! Pathophysiology PreTest asks the fitting questions so you’ll be aware of the precise solutions. Open it and begin studying what’s at the try. PreTest is the nearest factor you will get to seeing the try out prior to you are taking it.

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C. d. e. qxd 11/14/01 11:54 AM Page 19 Immune System Answers 1. The answer is b. ) IgG makes up about 85% of the immunoglobulin in adult serum. 2. The answer is c. ) Most of the antibody produced in a primary immune response is IgM. As time passes or at a second encounter with the same antigen, isotype (class) switching can occur. 3. The answer is d. ) IgE is found on the surface of mast cells and basophils. When antigen binds to the IgE, the mast cell releases various mediators involved in allergic reactions and antiparasitic defense.

IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin class in mucosal secretions such as saliva, colostrum, bronchial, and genitourinary tract secretions. It is often called secretory immunoglobulin. 5. The answer is b. ) IgG can cross the placenta and confer passive immunity to the fetus and newborn. 6. The answer is c. ) Innate immunity involves antigen-nonspecific immune defense. Neutrophils circulate in the blood and can migrate into tissue to ingest and kill bacteria. Although T and B cells can augment the innate immune response, they become inactivated in an antigen-specific manner.

Which cytokine antagonizes or suppresses many responses of lymphocytes? a. b. c. d. e. qxd 18 11/14/01 11:54 AM Page 18 Pathophysiology 44. Which cytokine functions as a promotor of T helper 2 (TH2) development and IgE synthesis? a. b. c. d. e. IFN-γ (interferon γ) IL-2 (interleukin 2) IL-4 (interleukin 4) TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α) TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) 45. Which cytokine functions as an activator of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells? a. b. c. d. e. qxd 11/14/01 11:54 AM Page 19 Immune System Answers 1.

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