By Lars Bergstrom, Per Carlson, Claes Fransson

It's regularly felt within the cosmology and particle astrophysics group that we've got simply entered an period which later can basically be seemed again upon as a golden age. due to the fast technical improvement, with robust new telescopes and different detectors taken into operation at a powerful price, and the accompanying development of theoretical rules, the image of the earlier, current and destiny Universe is getting ever clearer. the most fascinating new findings and anticipated destiny advancements are mentioned during this worthy quantity. the themes lined contain the physics of the early Universe and ultra-high power strategies. Emphasis is additionally wear neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the facts for non-zero neutrino plenty rising from either sun neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos coated in nice intensity. one other box with attention-grabbing new effects issues the elemental cosmological parameters, the place either conventional tools and the possibility of new ones, like deep supernova surveys and acoustic height detections within the cosmic microwave historical past, are completely mentioned. a number of points of the darkish subject challenge, equivalent to gravitational lensing estimates of galaxy plenty, cluster evolution and scorching cluster electron distortions of the thermal microwave historical past spectrum, also are mentioned, as are particle physics applicants of darkish topic and strategies to notice them. Cosmic rays of subject and antimatter are incorporated as a subject, and so is the matter of the enigmatic darkish strength of the vacuum.

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Additional info for Particle physics and the universe: Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 109 : Haga Slott, Enkoping, Sweden, August 20-25, 1998

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3. 3 at the 2-a level. A new weak lensing study of a supercluster (Kaiser et al. 05), under the assumption that there is no bias in the way that mass traces light. 4. Under the assumption of a flat universe, global limits can also be placed on Qm from studies of type la supernovae (see next section); currently the supernova results favor a value Qm ~ 0 . 3 . The measurement of the total matter density of the Universe remains an important and challenging problem. It should be emphasized that all of the methods for measuring Qm are based on a number of underlying assumptions.

1. 1. H0 Figure 1(a): Over the last half century, the value of Ho, the expansion rate of the Universe, has remained a well-known source of disagreement (for historical reviews see, for example, van den Bergh 1997; Rowan-Robinson 1985). After Baade (1954) recalibrated the Cepheid distance scale, and Sandage (1958) recognized that the brightest stars in galaxies were ionized HII regions, the Hubble constant decreased from its original value of over 500, and fell into the well-known range of a factor of two, loosely constrained, as shown by the schematic lines drawn in Fig.

The dependence of mass-to-light ratio, M/LB, on scale, R, for average spiral galaxies (spiral symbols), elliptical galaxies (elliptical symbols), and groups and clusters (filled circles). Adapted from Bahcall, Lubin and Dorman [11]; [15]. The large scale point at ~ 15 h _ 1 Mpc represents Virgo cluster infall motion results [11]. 3 are indicated by the horizontal lines. 2 ± 0 . 1 . A recent result for a supercluster using weak gravitational lensing ( K ~ 6 h - 1 Mpc; [14]), M/LB = 280 ± 40 h, is consistent with the suggested flattening of M/L(R).

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