By Paul Bahn, Paul Pettitt, Sergio Ripoll

Cave artwork is a topic of perennial curiosity between archaeologists. till lately it used to be assumed that it was once principally constrained to southern France and northerly Iberia, even supposing in recent times new discoveries have confirmed that it initially had a wider distribution. the invention in 2003 of the UK's first examples of cave artwork, in caves at Creswell Crags at the Derbyshire/Nottinghamshire border, was once the main superb representation of this. The discoverers (the editors of the e-book) introduced jointly in 2004 a couple of Palaeolithic archaeologists and rock artwork experts from internationally to review the Creswell paintings and debate its value, and its similarities and contrasts with modern past due Pleistocene ("Ice Age") paintings at the Continent. This comprehensively illustrated booklet provides the Creswell artwork itself, the archaeology of the caves and the quarter, and the broader context of the higher Palaeolithic period in Britain, in addition to a couple of updated experiences of Palaeolithic cave paintings in Spain, Portugal, France, and Italy which serve to contextualize the British examples.

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0%) cal. 8%) cal. 6%) cal. 0%) cal. 7%) cal. 7%) cal. 7%) cal. 1%) cal. 6%) VeriWcation of the Age of the Cave Art 43 18000 16000 Robin Hood Cave Pin Hole Church Hole 14000 Years (cal BP) 12000 Calibrated radiocarbon dates Notches Birds/ Ladies 10000 8000 6000 4000 Vulva (Robin Hoods Cave) Uranium series dates 2000 0 Fig. 3. U-series results for Xowstones overlying engravings in Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave and calibrated radiocarbon dates of humanly modiWed bones from Creswell since we expect the same Xowstones to have formed over a considerable period of time.

5, except in its measurements. It is also possible that it depicts a smaller swan or, at any rate, an anatid. The incision is U-shaped in section, not very broad (<1 mm) and fairly superWcial (<1 mm), and is patinated. e. tapering at both ends), which is 17 cm long by 9 cm wide. To its right there is another series of unconnected lines. 5 mm. Panel VIII This surface is located on the right wall, about 20 m from the cave entrance. 4 m above the present Xoor, and is 64 cm long by 143 wide, with a negative inclination of 148 west and an orientation of 3018 relative to absolute north.

9. Church Hole Panel VII, the ‘birds’ 27 Fig. 10. Church Hole Panel VII, the ‘birds’, line drawing We have shown this panel to various specialists in avifauna (we are grateful to Anne Eastham and Antonio Sa´nchez Marco for their objective suggestions), and where this Wgure is concerned there is no unanimity. It is thought that it could be a bittern (Botaurus stellaris) or a heron (Ardea purpurea) from the family of the Ardeidae, or a crane (Grus grus) from the family of the Gruidae. 5 cm. It has a negative inclination of 68 east and its orientation is 608 north.

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