By Dieter Meschede

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Additional resources for Optics, Light and Lasers: The Practical Approach to Modern Aspects of Photonics and Laser Physics, First Edition (Physics Textbook)

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A question might remain: Why have we chosen the Cartesian form of the paraxial Helmholtz equation, and why do cylindrical coordinates actually seldom appear? The reason is of technical nature, because at the interior of mirrors and windows small deviations from cylindrical symmetry are always present, and thus Cartesian Gaussian modes are preferred to Laguerre modes, which are found as solutions of equations with cylindrical symmetry. 4 Creation of Gaussian modes In most experiments interest is focused on the TEM00 principal mode.

We multiply the ABCD matrices according to Eqs. 25) 1112 . We consider the following two interesting extreme cases. (i) d < 11,2: Two lenses that are mounted directly next to each other, with no space between them, add their refractive powers, M ,-, L 2 L 1 with D = Di ± 13 2. This circumstance is used for example when adjusting eyeglasses, when refractive powers are combined until the required correction is found. Obviously a biconvex lens can be constructed out of two planar convex lenses, expecting that the focal length of the system is divided by two.

We present some important devices of electron and atom optics in Fig. 22. 2 Wave optics At the beginning of the 19th century a few phenomena were known that could not be reconciled with simple rectilinear, ray-like propagation of light, and made wave theory necessary. The beginning is marked by Huygens' principle (after the Dutch mathematician and physicist C. Huygens, 1629-1695), an explanation of wave propagation often used up to now and very intuitive. About 100 years later T. Young (1773-1829) from England and A.

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