By Michael B Hornum

Even though Nemesis used to be already respected in Archaic Greece, the most proof for worship comes from the Roman Principate. in this interval very important features of the cult have been the organization of the goddess with the country, and her presence in agonistic contexts. "Nemesis, the Roman nation and the video games" explores those facets, discerning a potential connection among them. the writer starts off by means of discussing the starting place and heritage of the goddess. He then clarifies the ways that the goddess used to be enlisted into the carrier of the Roman emperor and country. eventually, he explains the presence of the goddess virtually completely on the Roman "Munus" and "Venatio" as derived from the functionality of such video games to specific the right kind order of society. "Nemesis" represents an important second look of where of Nemesis within the Roman international. The publication additionally presents a useful corpus of epigraphic, literary, and iconographic facts for the goddess.

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2) treats the symbolism of Nemesis' wheel exactly in the same fashion as that of Tyche. Therefore, one might concur with a suggestion by Charles Edwards (1990, 532-33, note 18 ) that the wheel of Nemesis is independent in origin and normally in symbolic value from that of Tyche/Fortuna, deriving from the use of the wheel as an instrument of punishment especially for hubris, as in the myth of Ixion. Even if one accepts that Nemesis' wheel originated in the literary image of the cyclical movement of human fortunes, the attribute may still be 11 On Tyche, see Kajanto (1981,526-31), and the references there.

In literature the wheel (trochos, rota) appears mainly as a symbol of the constant shifting and turning of the affairs of man, from success to failure and back again. It already occurs in Sophocles (pearson Fragment 871) and perhaps in Aeschylus (or Sophocles-Pearson Fragment 575; cf. also Reinhardt 1934,257-58). 6). While this imagery remains generic in its 9 The wheel is called the "wheel of Tyche" or the "wheel of Fortune" in most standard treatments of Nemesis: cf. Rossbach (1897-1902, 158), Herter (1935, 2375).

As already seen, the coinage issues of Claudius bearing an image of Nemesis associate her with a typical imperial virtue, Pax Augusti, and the epigraphic evidence from Rharnnous, the possible testimony of the Jupiter Cameo, and the account of the connection between Caesar and the cult of Nemesis, significantly placed at Alexandria, all support such a connection between the Roman ruler and Nemesis prior to the griffm association with her. Very significant is the fact that some of the earliest images of the Nemesis griffin appear on Alexandrian coinage of Domitian, coin types being a state sponsored enterprise of immense potential propaganda value (Sutherland 1976, 120-21; Har11987, 23; Christiensen 1988,99,248), and particularly on the aforementioned relief where the griffin with the wheel appears above the image of the goddess Ma'at offered to Re-Harakhty by the Roman emperor as pharaoh.

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