By Miroslaw A. Karpierz, Gaetano Assanto (auth.), Orazio Descalzi, Marcel Clerc, Stefania Residori, Gaetano Assanto (eds.)

Systems pushed faraway from thermodynamic equilibrium can create dissipative constructions in the course of the spontaneous breaking of symmetries. a very attention-grabbing function of those pattern-forming platforms is their tendency to provide spatially constrained states. those localized wave packets can exist as propagating entities via house and/or time. numerous examples of such structures may be handled during this booklet, together with localized states in fluids, chemical reactions on surfaces, neural networks, optical platforms, granular platforms, inhabitants types, and Bose-Einstein condensates.This e-book should still entice all physicists, mathematicians and electric engineers attracted to localization in far-from-equilibrium structures. The authors - all well-known specialists of their fields - try to accomplish a stability among theoretical and experimental concerns thereby giving an outline of attention-grabbing actual ideas, their manifestations in diversified structures, and the unconventional technical purposes at the horizon.

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1 relates to nonlinearity and is responsible for self-focusing and the creation of spatial solitons. The 1 Light Self-trapping in Nematic Liquid Crystals 13 simplified equation predicts that a beam gets self-trapped and the walk-off varies with intensity. Experimentally, it was demonstrated that TNLC can support spatial solitons for light powers of a few tens of milliwatts. In the asymmetric case the results also show a change in direction of propagation with increased excitation. Most experiments were carried out in a cell of thickness d = 50 µm filled with 6CHBT (4trans-4’-n-hexyl-cyclohexyl-isothiocyanatobenzene) [52, 53].

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The deficiency of standard linearized theory is that it considers f0 (k) zindependent, which is no longer valid as the dynamics evolve. 30) can be approximated as ∼ πδ (gI − α k), yielding ∂F κ2 ∂ 1 ∂F = 2 |Ek |2 . 33) The asymptotic state of the instability can be found by considering the change of the corresponding power spectrum W (z) = 1/2 dkF 2 (k, z). 33), we have ∂W = ∂z +∞ −∞ dkF ∂F κ2 =− 2 ∂z β +∞ −∞ dk 1 ∂F |Ek |2 |k| ∂k 2 . 34) Each term in the last integrand is positive, which means that W will decrease until either |Ek |2 = 0, or ∂ F/∂ k = 0 for each value of k.

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