By Tamar Hodos

The first examine to compile any such breadth of knowledge, this ebook compares responses to colonization within the Iron-Age Mediterranean.

From North Syria to Sicily and North Africa, Tamar Hodos explores the responses to those colonies in components the place Greeks and Phoenicians have been in festival with each other through an identical neighborhood communities.

Highlighting the variety of curiosity displayed by way of neighborhood populations in those overseas cultural providing, Hodos charts their selective variation, amendment and reinterpretation of Greek and Phoenician items and concepts as their very own cultures evolve.

For scholars of archaeology and historical past, it will supply a necessary source for his or her measure path studies.

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Thus, Phoenician presence in Cilicia has traditionally been argued for on other artistic and epigraphic grounds, such as the Phoenicianstyle reliefs at Karatepe, accompanied by Phoenician inscriptions. It has been suggested, however, that the non-standard Phoenician elements within the carvings imply they were produced by local rather than Phoenician stone carvers, while the texts, themselves, may reflect a political function of the Phoenician language, rather than Phoenician settlement itself (Winter 1979: 138, note 96; Aubet 2001: 50).

Such a settlement may be self-governing, governed from the homeland or achieve self-government. The Greek and Phoenician colonies of the Mediterranean Iron Age would fall under this general category. Finally, some may function as community colonies (related to enclave colonies: Tournavitou 1990), in which a significant element of a settlement’s population comprised foreign residents. Tell Sukas may be one such example. The economic nature of overseas settlements has been another area of emphasis, in which such settlements are viewed as having primarily an economic and commercial purpose as specifically ports of trade (thus avoiding the laden term ‘colony’) (Polanyi 1963).

21 39 N O RT H S Y R I A With the exception of the presence of only Greek ceramics at the foundation level, Al Mina is otherwise typical of other contemporary North Syrian sites. 88, cited in Lehmann 2005: 68). Most of the identifiable jars that may have been used for storage were originally used for transport, whether from Greece, Cyprus or the Levant, and therefore merely attest Al Mina’s commercial interests; other storage jars are North Syrian (Luke 2003: 17–18). 22 Of furniture, only lamps have been found, the earliest of which occurs first in stratum 8 and is the pinched saucer type, a typical Near Eastern lamp shape with a wide geographical distribution.

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