By Rodrigo Valenzuela Baez

Lipids (fats and oils) are quite a lot of natural molecules that serve a number of capabilities in organisms. Lipids are crucial elements of our vitamin, highlighting their very important contribution in strength, representing nine kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by way of a few elements correct to the metabolism, resembling crucial fatty acids, fats soluble supplementations and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols). in addition to this, lipids have key roles in human development and improvement, besides selling, fighting and/or engaging within the starting place or finally within the therapy of varied ailments. This ebook provides a scientific and entire evaluate concerning the constitution and metabolism of lipids, fairly highlighting the significance of those molecules within the physique and contemplating the curiosity of a few lipids in future health and ailment.

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2010). Phytosterols and phytosterolemia: gene–diet interactions Genes Nutr. Vol 6, pp. 17-26. [60] Björkhem I. (2009). Are side-chain oxidized oxysterols regulators also in vivo?. J Lipid Res. Vol 50, pp. S213–18. 5772/51627 1. Introduction Free radicals are chemical compounds with unpaired electron(s), therefore being considered very active molecules. The cells had developed their own antioxidant defence systems in order to prevent the free radicals synthesis and to limit their toxic effects.

Copper homeostasis and lipid metabolism display functional interactions. Copper enters circulation via small intestine where copper transporters Ctr1 and ATP7A play the major role in the dietary copper absorption. Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a lower level of ceruloplasmin in the serum and increase in cholesterol and lipoproteins. Copper deficiency also upregulates the copper uptake protein Ctr1 in intestine; this compensatory effects is diminished by high fructose. In the liver, copper deficiency is associated with increased synthesis of cholesterol and higher expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS).

Despite variations in the age, diet composition, and time on a copper deficient diet, an increase in the cholesterol concentration and/or pool was consistently reported in these animals. The lipids and lipoprotein components were analyzed in detail by al-Othman and co-workers and provided valuable data on changes in plasma pool size along with the composition and concentration of lipoproteins (33). These studies demonstrated no change in plasma phospholipid composition in copper deficient rats when compared to controls.

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