By Saskia Van Genugten

Libya has a brief, unstable historical past. Foreigners performed an important function in shaping Libya’s associations and rules, and this publication explores long run developments within the relatives among Libya and the West, putting present advancements of their historic context. all through background, the globe’s strongest actors have looked Libya as an outlier nation of little value. Libya belonged neither right here nor there and not fell less than the complete security of any major worldwide or neighborhood powerhouse. Libya’s vulnerable nationwide id, its susceptible associations and its peripheral place have made it susceptible to exterior impacts and interventions. accordingly, Libya many times falls prey to international powers desirous to flex their muscle mass. As this booklet narrates, this was once the case in 1911, in 2011 and several other occasions in between.

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Additional resources for Libya in Western Foreign Policies, 1911–2011

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15 Francesco Coppola, “Italy in the Mediterranean”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 1, No.  105–114.  49.  72. LIBYA DURING THE WORLD WARS: OTHER PEOPLE’S BATTLEFIELD 31 resistance hero Omar al-Mukhtar. 19 Al-Rida, confronted with an overwhelming Italian military force, opted for surrender, though many of his men defected and continued the fight. In June 1929, Omar al-Mukhtar, born in Janzour and a graduate of the Sanussi University in al-Bayda, climbed up the ranks as the new wartime guerilla leader of the Sanussi forces.

The British administration had refused to give any official, recordable promise with regard to future independence. Sidi Idris had repeatedly requested Britain to issue a written statement, hoping to remove this cause of disagreement between the different tribes and extended families he represented. London ignored these requests and when General Wavell occupied Cyrenaica in the winter of 1940–1941, he did not utter a word about establishing a Sanussi-led government. As a result, Cyrenaican leaders joined their Tripolitanian brothers in protest and Sidi Idris addressed a letter to the British minister of state in Cairo, Oliver Lyttelton.

1057/978-1-137-48950-0_4 45 46 S. VAN GENUGTEN the Sporting Club, the Workers’ Club or the Reform Club of Misrata. When the war formally ended, Tripoli soon witnessed the establishment of several political parties. While none of them was able to gain the upper hand in any credible way, amongst the generally shared objectives were independence, the establishment of a Republic and membership of the Arab League. The economic situation in Libya had slightly changed with the handover of power from Italian to British and French forces.

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