By Gordon Williamson

Kriegsmarine U-Boats 1939-45 (2) КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Kriegsmarine U-Boats 1939-45 (2) (New leading edge 55)ByGordon Williamson, Ian PalmerPublisher:Os Publishing2002 48PagesISBN: 1841763640PDF23 MBThis identify follows on from quantity I and charts the ongoing improvement of the U-boat in German carrier. This comprises the improvement of the sort IX as an extended diversity 'cruiser' meant for solo operations in far away waters. additionally coated is the progressive variety XXI, conceived of in 1942 and introduced in April 1944, the 1st actual submarine instead of submersible, whose arrival used to be simply too past due to steer the struggle. different vessels integrated are the sort XXIII, small and armed with basically torpedoes yet technically hugely complicated, and the kind X minelayers. those have been not often utilized in their meant position and have been extra usually used as offer boats. concerning the AuthorGordon Williamson used to be born in 1957 and at the moment works for the Scottish Land sign up. He spent seven years with the army Police TA and has released a few books and articles at the of the 3rd Reich and their winners. he's writer of a couple of global warfare II titles for Osprey. Ian Palmer is a hugely skilled electronic artist. A graduate in 3D layout, he has supplied illustrations for lots of courses, from modelling James Bond's Aston Martin to recreating lunar landings. He lives and works in London together with his spouse and 3 cats. sharingmatrix zero

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These were excellent boats, though somewhat limited in having only two torpedoes and no reloads. The last U-boat victories of the Second World War were scored by a Type XXIII. This view shows U-2367 after being raised (having been scuttled in May 1945) and recommissioned as the Hecht. At bottom (3) is the experimental Wa201, a Type XVII powered by the revolutionary Walter turbine. Developed too late to be put into operational use, these boats were used purely as test beds. So great was the Allied interest in them that U-793 was commissioned into the Royal Navy after the war and used for extensive testing in 1947.

Its top speed on the surface was seven knots and submerged six. knots. Radius of action was around 90 nautical miles. Maximum depth of 25 meu-es was attainable. The Biber carried two torpedoes slung externally in concave indentations in the lower hull. Around 320 Biber were produced. Although they scored no sinkings in their first action on tl1e ormandy invasion front in August 1944, all the vessels that took part returned to base safely, itself quite an achievement. Subsequent operations, however, saw heavy losses incurred.

This brought its own problems, however, and any ingress of water into the boat could cause disaster. Both U-2365 and U-2331 were lost to accidents when water entered the boats and caused rapid sinking. It was also discovered that the assumed maximum depth before hull failure could be expected had been grossly overestimated at some 250 meu"es. In fact, the maximum safe operating depth was eventually established at just 80 metres. For the first time ever on an operational U-boat, the torpedoes left the tubes under their own power rather than being ejected solely by compressed air.

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