By A. Kornberg (auth.), Professor Dr. Dr. Heinz C. Schröder, Professor Dr. Werner E. G. Müller (eds.)

Inorganic polyphosphates - polymers of orthophosphate associated via high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds - were present in it seems that all sorts of lifestyles, from micro organism, yeasts and fungi to raised crops and animals. those polymers, which have been missed for a very long time, became a desirable region of analysis within the previous couple of years. This quantity summarizes the current country of data concerning the metabolism and serve as of inorganic polyphosphates. moreover, the the right way to examine those polymers in addition to the biotechnological functions of inorganic polyphosphates are defined. The 15 chapters of this quantity, facing various points of polyphosphate examine, are written through specialists within the box. This publication represents a invaluable resource of knowledge not just for researchers engaged on this topic, but in addition for scientists attracted to basic elements of mobile and effort metabolism.

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I. Optimale Wirkungsbedingungen fUr den Abbau von Poly- und Metaphosphaten. Z Physiol Chern. 303: 107-114 Mattenheimer H (1956b) Die Substratspezifitat anorganischer Poly- und Metaphosphatasen. II. Trennung der Enzyme. Z Physiol Chern 303: 115-124 Mattenheimer H (1956c) Die Substratspezifitat anorganischer Poly- und Metaphosphatasen. III. Papierchromatographische Untersuchungen beim enzymatischen Abbau von anorganischen Poly- und Metaphosphaten. Z Physiol Chern 303: 125-139 Muhammed A (1961) Studies on biosynthesis of polymetaphosphate by an enzyme from Corynebacterium xerosis.

In my early work with Lohmann on polyphosphates I carried out thousands of these assays and can confirm they were simple and very useful. 1 Max-Delbriick-Centrum ffir molekulare Medizin, FB Zellbiologie, Robert-RossIe Str. 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany. Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology, Vol. 23 H. C. Schroder, W. E. G. Langen Greater general interest in inorganic polyphosphates in cells did not occur until after World War II. One should, however, mention the remarkable paper by Majorie Macfarlane in 1936, describing that "a complex containing iron, nucleic acid and metaphosphate", from which she could isolate "inorganic metaphosphate", accounted for 30 % of the total phosphate in yeast.

1996a,b). Such commonly used inhibitors of phosphohydrolases as orthovanadate and molybdate were ineffective. The sensitivity to molibdate reported earlier (Andreeva and Okorokov 1993; Andreeva et al. 1994; Lichko et al. 1996a) was due to acidification of the incubation medium under molibdate addition. This inhibition 37 Metabolism and Function of Polyphosphates in Bacteria and Yeast Table 3. Effect of some reagents on polyphosphatase activities of different cell compartments of S. cerevisiae Activity with polyP ls (% to control) Reagent Cell envelope" Without effector 100 EDTA (1 mM) 145 Heparin (20 Ilglml) 6 Antibodies against 10 cell envelope polyphosphatase Cytosol" 100 143 8 20 Vacuolar sapb 100 68 26 100 Nucleib 100 70 11 100 Mitochondria Membraneboundb Solubleb 100 100 0 100 100 100 0 70 " Purified enzymes.

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