By Helmut Berve, Gottfried Gruben, Max Hirmer

"Lo scopo di questo libro è duplice: esso non vuole soltanto presentare, così come ci sono prevenuti, i monumenti che si trovano nel vasto ambito dell'antica Ellade quali testimonianza di uno sviluppo artistico singolare, quanto scoprire piuttosto il vero e profondo significato di questi monumenti e fare risorgere davanti i nostri occhi quello che oggi è conservato soltanto in rovina."

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D. 1994. Competition for carcasses and early hominid behavioral ecology: a case study and a conceptual framework. Journal of Human Evolution 27: 197–213. Blumenschine, R. , Peters, C. , Capaldo, S. , Njau, J. , Pobiner, B. L. 2007. Vertebrate taphonomic perspectives on Oldowan hominin land use in the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai basin, Tanzania. , and Toth, N. ) African Taphonomy: A Tribute to the Career of C. K. “Bob” Brain. Bloomington, IN: CRAFT Press (Indiana University), pp. 161–180. , 1983. On the Current Status of the Issue of Scientific Realism.

4. I will comment on only some of the reasons why some variables and hypotheses commonly used by some researchers to tackle the first founder hypothesis presented here were excluded. Food sharing requires food surplus, which in turn, if regularly obtained, requires primary access to carcass resources in modern African savannas. I have used some taphonomic indicators as analytical variables (converted into silogistic propositions inside hypotheses), which emphasize the careful and correct identification of hominin-imparted signatures preserved in the fossil record (namely, cut marks).

Hypotheses and their testing premises, composing the theory of the emergence of human behavior suggested in the present work Founder hypotheses Factual hypotheses Versions Propositions Testing premises A. Intentional food sharing was the main goal of cooperation A1. Primary access to animal resources Presence of filleting marks Cut-marked long bone frequency >10% (optimal range = 15%–30%) Cut-marked meaty long bone mid-shaft frequency >50% of all cut-marked long bone specimens Cut-marked upper limb bone shafts >15% Presence of cut marks on “hot zones” as experimentally modeled Presence of disarticulation marks Cut marks on epiphyseal portions linked to ligament cutting Presence of evisceration marks Cut marks on ventral side of ribs Presence of percussion marks Percussion-marked long bone shaft specimens 10%–35% Falsifying premises Further experimentation replicating secondary access to carcasses in nonanthropogenically disturbed ecosystem (Dom´ınguez-Rodrigo, 2008) shows a different distribution and frequency of cut marks.

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