By Murray Gell-Mann (auth.), Harvey B. Newman, Thomas Ypsilantis (eds.)

The foreign convention at the background of unique rules and easy Discoveries, held on the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for clinical tradition in Erice, Sicily, July 27-August four, 1994, introduced jointly sixty of the prime scientists together with many Nobel Laureates in excessive strength physics, primary participants in different fields of physics reminiscent of excessive Tc superconductivity, particle accelerators and detector instrumentation, and thirty-six gifted more youthful physicists chosen from applicants through the global. The medical application, together with forty nine lectures and a dialogue consultation at the "Status and destiny instructions in excessive strength Physics" used to be encouraged by means of the convention subject matter: the most important experimental discoveries and theoretical breakthroughs of the final 50 years, in particle physics and similar fields, have led us to a robust description of topic by way of 3 quark and 3 lepton households and 4 primary interactions. the latest new release of experiments at e+e- and proton-proton colliders, and corresponding advances in theoretical calculations, have given us remarkably specified determinations of the fundamental parameters of the electroweak and robust interactions. those advancements, whereas displaying the notable inner consistency of the traditional version, have additionally sharpened our view of the various unanswered questions which stay for the subsequent new release: the starting place and trend of particle lots and households, the unification of the interactions together with gravity, and the relation among the legislation of physics and the preliminary stipulations of the universe.

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In order to be able to identify these particles as the observed At and p mesons, I had to hold my nose and add a gaugesymmetry breaking gauge boson mass term. But since this term was assumed to obey the global SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry, it did not affect the difference in the squared masses of the At and p mesons. Interestingly, this mass squared difference turned out to be in agreement with what little we knew about the At. ) But the theory was too repulsive to take it very seriously. It was not only that it was not Electroweak Reminiscences 29 renormalizable; the addition of the gauge boson mass term invalidated the gauge symmetry that was the motivation for the theory in the first place.

But this rationale wouldn't make much sense if the theory wasn't renormalizable to begin with. By 1967 it had become generally understood that massless Yang-Mills theories are renormalizable, and that adding a mass term in the Lagrangian of these theories destroys their renormalizability. I suggested in my 1967 paper that renormalizability could be preserved if the vector bosons acquired a mass from a spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetry, an opinion that Salam expressed even more strongly in his independent 1968 article.

S. R. , Phys. Lett. B 138,454 (1984); 146,116 (1984). 54. R. Barbieri and E. Remiddi, in The DAiJ>NE Physics Handbook [6], Vol. II, eds. L. Maiani et ai. (INFN, Frascati, 1993), pp. 301 - 304. 55. M. B. Einhorn, Phys. Rev. D 49, 1668 (1993). 56. M. Bando, T. Kugo, and K. Yamawaki, Phys. Rep. 164, 217 (1988). 57. M. Hayakawa, T. Kinoshita, and A. Sanda, in preparation. 58. E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 322, 239 (1994). 59. W E. CasweIl and G. P. Lepage, Phys. Lett. B167, 437 (1986). 60. F. G. , Phys.

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