By Louis E. Fenech, W. H. McLeod

Sikhism lines its beginnings to Guru Nanak, who used to be born in 1469 and died in 1538 or 1539. With the lifetime of Guru Nanak the account of the Sikh religion starts off, all Sikhs acknowledging him as their founder. Sikhism has lengthy been a little-understood faith and till lately they resided virtually solely in northwest India. this day the complete variety of Sikhs is nearly twenty million around the globe. a few million dwell outdoor India, constituting an important minority within the uk, Canada, and the USA. lots of them are hugely noticeable, fairly the lads, who put on beards and turbans, they usually clearly allure awareness of their new nations of domicile.

This 3rd version of Historical Dictionary of Sikhism covers its heritage via a chronology, an introductory essay, and an in depth bibliography. The dictionary part has over a thousand cross-referenced entries on key people, organisations, the rules, precepts and practices of the faith in addition to the heritage, tradition and social preparations. This publication is a superb entry aspect for college students, researchers, and an individual eager to recognize extra approximately Sikhism.

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Guru Hargobind was eventually compelled to withdraw from the plains of the Punjab and took up residence at Kiratpur on the edge of the Shivalik Hills, overlooking the plains. His three successors all spent the greater part of their tenure as Guru in the Shivaliks, generally safe from Mughal enmity. The seventh Guru was a grandson of Hargobind named Har Rai (1644–1661), and he was followed by his son Har Krishan (1661–1664). Har Krishan was a small child and died in Delhi of smallpox after a short tenure.

Like her husband, she was committed to the cause of female education, helping to establish and run the Sikh Kanya Mahavidayala. AHIMSĀ. Although ahimsā is popularly translated into English with the term “nonviolence,” this translation fails to take into account the entire semantic range of the term. It does not simply mean refraining from violence but also underscores an active commitment to protecting and preserving life, in effect, to helping to institute righteousness. This doctrine thus formed a substantial plank in the political ideology of the Indian National Congress, and was a doctrine fervently preached by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Abul Fazl’s family was well placed in the Mughal darbar of Akbar as his father, Shaikh Mubarak, was the principal author behind the emperor’s 1579 maḥẓar (“decree,” often understood to be Akbar’s doctrine of infallibility), and his brother, Abul Faizi, was for a time the court’s poet laureate (malikushshuʿārā). Abul Fazl was a master of Persian prose, and his accounts of the emperor were often used to train young clerks in epistolography. He also wrote of the meeting between Guru Arjan and Akbar in November 1598.

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