By Jennifer S. Holmes

For many years, Colombia has contended with quite a few hugely publicized conflicts, together with the increase of paramilitary teams in accordance with insurgent insurgencies of the Sixties, the growth of an unlawful drug that has permeated politics and society because the Seventies, and a faltering financial system within the Nineties. An unparalleled research of those struggles, weapons, medicines, and improvement in Colombia brings jointly major students from numerous fields, mixing formerly unseen quantitative info with historic research for an impressively entire evaluate. Culminating in an inspiring plan for peace, in keeping with 4 Cornerstones of Pacification, this landmark paintings is bound to spur new demands swap during this nook of Latin the US and past.

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It is easier for the state to provide services to a dense rural population, which does not suffer from many of the problems common to large urban centers. This indicates that the population is not concentrated in one or two large cities. In fact, there are three cities with populations larger than 500,000, and six cities with populations of between 250,000 and 500,000. Perhaps reflecting the strong historical trends of regionalism discussed in 31 3. 4 Note: Age-dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents to the working-age population.

An examination of economic data clearly reveals that 1999 was a turning point: unemployment was at its highest, while per capita GDP and the growth rate of GDP were at their lowest. Employment conditions deteriorated rapidly. 5 percent in 1994, the lowest on record (Iregui and Otero 2003). Iregui and Otero noted that since the 1990s, wages were above the “steady-state level,” which may have contributed to the increase in unemployment (2003, 896). Wages higher than equilibrium wages lead to relatively expensive labor.

The rugged Colombian landscape is hard to control and may be relatively susceptible to insurgency. e. jungle canopy or rainforests and rugged terrain, are good for hiding guerillas, for providing bases, hideouts, and arms caches that are difficult to find on the ground and difficult to see from the air. Such terrain . . renders airpower (including the use of attack helicopters) virtually useless. Altogether, such terrain conditions tend to raise the ratios of counterinsurgency forces to insurgents required for victory for the former, and vice versa, also making more like a protracted, indeterminable, stalemated conflict that, more often than not, will be to the political detriment of an incumbent regime on the defensive.

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