By Peter Gatrell

This publication examines the power of the tsarist executive and Russian industrialists to reply to the a number of demanding situations of battle, revolution, political reform, overseas international relations and rearmament within the early 20th century. utilizing Russian archive fabrics, Peter Gatrell analyzes the method and consequence of decision-making through govt and company within the key sphere of security, and makes a major contribution to the literature at the means of the outdated regime to fend off demanding situations to its authority at domestic and its status in another country.

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This initiative reduced production costs by 10 per cent and cut the time taken to complete contracts by an even greater margin. Here, surely, was a model for the defence industry as a whole. But the need to find jobs for retired army officers as managers, and the bureaucratic fondness of regulation, were powerful inducements to maintain the status quo. 43 The acquisition of private yards during the 1890s posed problems for the imperial government. Would they be incorporated into the existing regulations for state enterprise, or would they retain elements of The eve of the Russo-Japanese War 37 commercial management?

17 The War Ministry incurred a significant cost in maintaining an army of this size. The military budget was severely stretched. Financial constraints meant that a far smaller proportion of Russian manpower received military training than elsewhere. Those men who were conscripted received a relatively meagre allowance. In an attempt to inflict on soldiers the burden of feeding and clothing themselves, the ministry supplied raw materials to the troops and obliged them to prepare food and manufacture boots and uniforms.

An unscrupulous supplier did not find it difficult to bribe ill-paid officials. 19 The Russian army faced difficult choices when it came to defining spending priorities. In 1891, the War Ministry received funds to acquire the new Mosin rifle; appropriations were subsequently approved to strengthen the fortresses on the western frontier. The army also obtained extra funds - notwithstanding the financial straitjacket imposed in 1899 - for artillery and barrack construction. However, the 24 Defence imperatives and Russian industry, 1900-1907 army suffered in other respects, notably in the supply of heavy field artillery and fortress artillery, in which there was a shortfall by 1900 of more than 1,000 guns, or 15 per cent of the required norm.

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