By Andy Haines, Andrew Haines, Anna Donald

Completely up to date and revised, the hot variation of this obtainable advisor goals to stipulate why there's a hole among learn findings and what truly occurs in scientific perform. It covers a few issues together with the resources of knowledge on medical effectiveness and techniques of knowledge, the way to shut the distance among learn and pratice, strength roles for lay humans, the function of selection help, obstacles to using proof in medical perform, the position of choice research, imposing study findings in constructing nations and the way to inspire the implementation of effects from fiscal assessment.

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27 Mandelblatt J, Kanetsky PA. Effectiveness of interventions to enhance physician screening for breast cancer. J Fam Pract 1995;40:162–71. 28 Snell JL, Buck EL. Increasing cancer screening: a meta-analysis. Prev Med 1996;25:702–7. 29 Hulscher M. Implementing prevention in general practice: a study on cardiovascular disease. PhD thesis. Nijmegen: University of Nijmegen, 1998. 30 Lancaster T, Silagy C, Gray S, Fowler G. The effectiveness of training health professionals to provide smoking cessation interventions: systematic review of randomised controlled trials (Cochrane Review).

In the 1990s great progress was made in making evidence from research more easily available. In part this was achieved through the development of programmes of health technology assessment and, in particular, the growth of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews evaluate the available primary evidence and indicate the effectiveness of particular interventions. A valuable compilation of reviews is available in the Cochrane Library and many reports examining the cost and clinical effectiveness of treatments and ways of organising health care have been published by technology assessment agencies such as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) in the United States and the English Health Technology Assessment Programme.

Effective Health Care 1999;5(1):1–16. ) 7 The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 1998. Oxford: Update Software. Updated quarterly. 8 Effective Health Care. Implementing clinical guidelines. Can guidelines be used to improve clinical practice? Effective Health Care 1994;1(8). 9 Grimshaw JM, Russell IT. Effect of clinical guidelines on medical practice. A systematic review of rigorous evaluations. Lancet 1993;342:1317–22. 10 Oxman AD, Guyatt GH. The science of reviewing research. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993;703:123–31.

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