By M. S. Kanungo

This ebook reports the molecular biology of the gene relating to getting older. the writer offers simple info on eukaryotic genes and follows this with information of the adjustments that take place of their constitution and serve as in the course of getting older. He studies the most recent reviews being conducted in a number of laboratories, outlines the gaps and deficiencies in our current wisdom, and indicates the main ecocnomic destiny components of study.

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Northern blot analyses have shown that the expressions of several genes decrease with age, whereas certain other genes are more expressed in old age. The expression of genes is altered by several factors such as hormones and temperature. These responses are generally lower in the older organism. Thus, the adaptability of the organism to changes in the internal and external environments appears to decrease with age. Since the expression of a gene is modulated by cis-acting regulatory sequences located at its 5' flanking region, several workers have begun studying the trans-acting nuclear factors that bind to the cis-acting elements in the genes.

1974). 4. A response of the enzyme to the inducer that may be the same in both the adult and the old as in the case of TAT (Adelman, 1975), and mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (Bulos, Shukla & Sacktor, 1972). In general, it is well established that the impairment of induction occurs either in magnitude or in the lag period or both. Most induction studies have been made using steroid hormones, the reason being that they act at the genetic level. Since these hormones are lipids, they pass through the target cell membrane and bind to specific cytosol protein receptors to form a H-R complex.

Studies of Das and Kanungo (1982) have shown that the levels of spermine and spermidine are far lower in the brain of old rats than adults. Also ODC activity is significantly lower. The ODC level is far higher in the heart and lung than in other tissues, and in both the tissues its level is lower in the old animals. As mentioned earlier, only a few enzymes of any metabolic path have been studied as a function of age. Hence a general picture of the changes in a metabolic path cannot be discerned.

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