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1: List of protein amino acids, single letter and triple letter symbols and their R groups. Amino acids marked * are essential amino acids. Amino acids, polypeptides and proteins 47 In plants amino acids are synthesized using several pathways depending on the starting carbon skeleton. Glutamate, glutamine, histidine, proline and arginine are synthesized from ketoglutarate. Aspartate, asparagine, threonine, isoleucine, methionine and lysine are derived from oxaloacetate. Serine, glycine and cysteine are synthesized from 3-Phospho glycerate.

14). Since the two strands of the DNA double helix are antiparallel, there is continuous synthesis of the daughter strand on one of the two strands. However, on the other strand functioning as template, discrete fragments are synthesized. The strand on which continuous synthesis of daughter strand occurs is called as the leading strand. The other strand with discontinous synthesis is called as the lagging strand. It is therefore stated that the DNA replication is „semidiscontinous‟. This would mean that RNA primers are synthesized every now and then on the lagging strand and the DNA synthesis follows.

However, the snRNPs involved in the reactions are different except U5. 5). Group I self-splicing introns are rare but are found in some rRNA genes, organelles and prokaryotic genes. Group II self-splicing introns are found in some genes from organelles and some prokaryotic genes. In both these groups the enzymatic property resides with the intron itself. Therefore sometimes they are called as true ribozymes. The excised intron is linear in case of group I self-splicing introns while it is a lariat in the case of group II self-splicing introns.

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