By Gregory Mann
This publication appears past the widespread background of former empires and new geographical regions to contemplate newly transnational groups of harmony and reduction, social technological know-how and activism. almost immediately after independence from France in 1960, the folks dwelling alongside the Sahel - a protracted, skinny stretch of land bordering the Sahara - turned the topics of human rights campaigns and humanitarian interventions. simply whilst its states have been most powerful and such a lot formidable, the postcolonial West African Sahel turned fertile terrain for the creation of novel sorts of governmental rationality learned via NGOs. The roots of this "nongovernmentality" lay in part in Europe and North the US, however it flowered, ironically, within the Sahel. This booklet is exclusive in that it questions not just how West African states exercised their new sovereignty but additionally how and why NGOs - starting from CARE and Amnesty foreign to black internationalists - started to think components of sovereignty in the course of a interval within which it was once so hugely valued.
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Extra info for From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel: The Road to Nongovernmentality
Precise comparisons are thus difficult, but the basic point stands. z6 Slavery and Freedom in the Early Modern World slaves. *9 The difference between Spanish exploitation of labor in the Americas and its Dutch, English, and French counterpart is often explained, at least partly, in terms of the different European backgrounds of the exploiters. Given the small size of the export sector, would the Dutch or English have behaved differently with respect to obtaining labor if they, instead of the Spanish, had taken over Mexico and Peru?
By the time the western Caribbean came on stream as a potential location for a plantation complex exporting to Europe the demographic disaster meant there was no alternative to Africans. The history of the other Iberians in the Americas reinforces the argument. Unlike the Spanish in Central America, the Portuguese had difficulty in producing an export commodity on the basis of waged labor, in part because they occupied areas with smaller aboriginal populations and weaker state structures. Morever, some of the Brazilian captaincies of the mid-sixteenth century were close enough to Europe and Africa to make competition with the sugar producers of Sao Tome in the Old World possible.
The history of the other Iberians in the Americas reinforces the argument. Unlike the Spanish in Central America, the Portuguese had difficulty in producing an export commodity on the basis of waged labor, in part because they occupied areas with smaller aboriginal populations and weaker state structures. Morever, some of the Brazilian captaincies of the mid-sixteenth century were close enough to Europe and Africa to make competition with the sugar producers of Sao Tome in the Old World possible.