By Rosalind B. Brooke

The early historians of the Franciscan order traced the factors of the worries of the order of their time to Elias, a latest and pal of St Francis and an early Minister basic. Elias used to be blamed for beginning find out how to all relaxations of self-discipline and disrespect of the founder's educating, and all conflicts and persecutions. Mrs Brooke indicates that accountability can't be put on one guy, yet on a few of the early friars. She provides a extra historic account of Elias, displaying that he used to be by no means as dominant a determine as has been intended. The early conflicts of the order are proven to were extra complicated, extra attention-grabbing and extra possible than the fourteenth-century controversialists might permit. the second one a part of the publication describes the achievements of Elias's successors as Minister common, and the real legislation they handed. Mrs Brooke has been in a position to reconstruct the early constitutions, now misplaced, in larger element than has formerly been tried.

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Also F. Tocco, Studii Francescani (Naples, 1909), pp. 103 ff. 3-2 36 I N T R O D U C T I O N : THE N A R R A T I V E SOURCES July of that year, and the vase, as Leo told Giles, was by a building already 'tarn excessiva'. The Chapter, then, at which John Parenti was elected could not have been in 1227, when the building was not begun, but in 1230. Elias, after his deposition, concentrated upon his building operations,1 and summoned all his supporters to attend the next General Chapter. They forced their way into the meeting and acclaimed Elias General after John Parenti had taken off his habit and resigned.

H. Boehmer, Chronica Fratris Jordani, Introd. pp. bri-briii). 4 C. 71. 5 For instance, the account of the 1227 General Chapter is given solely from a provincial angle (cc. 51-2). Among many brief notices of general import may be cited: Honorius Ill's confirmation of the Rule (c. 29), the reorganisation of the provincial administration in 1239 (c. 67), and the succession of Ministers General (cc. 51, 61, 66, 70, 73, 76, 77). 3 22 I N T R O D U C T I O N : THE NARRATIVE SOURCES great merits of originality and reliability.

The request that he would have his reminiscences written down was actively supported by the Provincial Minister. 4 The dates he gives for the depositions of Crescentius of Jesi (c. 76), and John of Parma (c. 77), are one year out. His dating of the first ultramontane missions has provoked considerable discussion among scholars (cf. Boehmer, op. tit. Introd. pp. H. ). 6 Cc. 61-6. 5 C. 18. 2 JORDAN OF GIANO 23 tures, or deficiency in observation or humour. His sketches of Nicholas the Humble and John of Piano Carpine1 are lifelike and delightful, but not one of the Ministers General (and he mentions them all) is honoured with a single adjective.

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