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Extra resources for Die Grundlagen des natuerlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. Leipzig

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F. Hoekstra 5 Heuristic Function of the Models The situation described above for anisogamy is characteristic for a large part of evolutionary biology. Of the many characters or processes studied the actual proximate causation is largely unknown. This implies that the functional explanations advanced are necessarily based on highly idealized and possibly unrealistic assumptions. Consequently, these explanations are still in a heuristic (or exploratory) stage. To be sure, this is a very important function, and heuristic models are excellent tools for guiding further research, but obviously they cannot be considered to be final explanations.

Because of severe winter conditions) the relatively lower density and reduced competition improves juvenile survival in these populations in the breeding season. s n Fig. 1. Three-dimensional fitness component set. g. the density of breeding pairs in spring. g. ) How do the optimal life history strategies differ in different environments? In order to solve this problem we must: 1. Specify the trade-off structure (separate the fitness components into independent groups); 2. Specify the adaptive function (simplify the Euler-Lotka equation if possible); 3.

The non-allelic incompatibility mechanism involves the interaction of specific alleles of two separate loci. There are various independent systems of this type known, altogether involving up to nine loci. They cause a vegetative as well as a sexual incompatibility. e. one of the reciprocal crosses does not lead to zygote formation. Two of these non-allelic mechanisms may interact to prevent any zygote formation. In a sample of 19 geographical races only 7% of all possible pairwise combinations proved to be capable of unrestricted exchange of genetic material, and in 45% there was no exchange at all.

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