By Jonathan Grix
The 1st entire advent to the hot version of social technological know-how and arts postgraduate study. in accordance with the top present process postgraduate examine education, a programme that would develop into the norm for postgraduate learn over the subsequent or 3 years. Designed as a collection textual content for '3 plus 1' and related programmes * the major instruments and terminology of study * What to do prior to starting the undertaking * investment * All concerning the student-supervisor dating * The viva exam * the method of writing a thesis * learn more... checklist of figures; Preface; creation; 1 the character of doctoral examine; 2 The 'nuts and bolts' of analysis; three Getting begun; four equipment, fieldwork and phases of analysis; five Supervision, the viva and different concerns of value; Appendix 1: word list of study phrases; Appendix 2: Examples of reference structures; Bibliography; Index
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Additional resources for Demystifying postgraduate research : from MA to PhD
Derived from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (reason), epistemology focuses on the knowledge-gathering process and is concerned with developing new models or theories that are better than competing models and theories. Knowledge, and the ways of discovering it, are not static, but forever changing. When reflecting on theories, and concepts in general, you need to think about the assumptions on which they are based and where they originate from. For example, do they stem from America or Europe (this will have an impact on the overall outcome of the research and its generalisability, otherwise known as external validity, or universal laws)?
When using statistics, they also need to be aware of sampling error and the potential biases in any interpretation of findings. The most common types of method associated with quantitative research are social surveys, analyses of previously collected data or official statistics and 'structured' observation (Silverman, 2000, 3; this method is discussed in chapter 4). , 4), as the complexity of social life makes it difficult to be absolutely certain that a particular variable is the sole cause of something.
You can, however, use both references and footnotes, with the latter providing additional information other than on the sources used. Your choice of referencing system, again, may be governed by your department's regulations, so it is best to check, as wasted hours can be spent reformatting footnotes to endnotes and vice versa. Many a student — and senior academic too — has spent several weeks at the end of their studies scrambling around redoing footnotes or endnotes that were left behind unfinished in a creative burst of intellectual activity somewhere in year one.