By Yaacov Ro'i

This e-book is dedicated to the learn and research of the customers for democracy one of the Muslim ethnicities of the Commonwealth of self sustaining States (CIS), either those who have got complete independence and people last in the Russian Federation. the 19 Western teachers and students from the Muslim international locations and areas of the CIS who give a contribution to this quantity view the institution of democratic associations during this zone within the context of a large and intricate variety of affects, certainly the Russian/Soviet political legacy; local ethnic political tradition and culture; the Islamic religion; and the turning out to be polarity among Western civilization and the Muslim global.

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An outstanding example was the election of Abulkhayr Khan (1710), who was famous for his personal qualities but had not a single khan predecessor in his clan, except for the founder of the Kazakh Khanate, Zhanibek, who was the ancestor of all the Kazakh khans. In the 16th century, the division into three hordes was ephemeral, depending first and foremost on land usage, but also on kinship within the horde. 18 Nonetheless, the Kazakhs remained one people with a common language, culture and economy Although primarily nomadic the Kazakhs also boasted settled and semi-settled agriculture and even some towns, particularly in the south and south-east.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. One example out of many is Lema Usmanov, Nepokorennaia Chechnia (Moscow, 1997), pp. 60–5. The best study of these communities is Mamaikhan Aglarov, Sel’skaia obshchina v Nagornom Dagestane v XVII – nachalo XIX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1988). For a short description in English, see Anna Zelkina, In Quest for God and Freedom. Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the Northern Caucasus (London: C. Hurst, 1999), pp. 14–20. Namely the jama‘at of Tash in Antl-Ratl (literally, ‘the Seven Lands’ — see note 6).

Valikhanov, Sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 4 (Alma-Ata, 1985), p. 505. A. Orazbaeva, ‘Istoricheskaia rol’ i sotsial’noe znachenie instituta biistva v istorii kazakhskogo naroda’, Sayasat 5 (1997), p. 103. Valikhanov, Sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 4, p. 88. The regulations divided the territory of the Middle Zhuz into 8 okrugs, which in turn, were split into volost ’s. The volost’ was divided into auls headed by starshinas. In 1824 the khan’s power was liquidated in the Lesser Zhuz, as well. The territory of the zhuz was divided into three parts, each headed by a sultan.

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