By Jonathan M. Roberts (auth.)

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It is apparent from the relationships between the US and the Soviet Union post-1945 that, provided they avoid direct confrontation, the system demonstrates a 'marked degree' of violence tolerance. 36 It is not so much the evolution of a bipolar international system after the Second World War that is important, but the changes in military technology heralding the arrival of nuclear weapons. This resulted in qualitative alterations to the fundamental characteristics of power in international politics.

3 For an international crisis a fourth condition may be added: (d) the perception of a high probability of involvement in military hostilities, though Hermann does not mention this one in his writing. 4 Hermann states that the first three (and surely the fourth) must be present at some very high level of intensity if a situation is to be reacted to as a crisis, and cites the Munich crisis, the decision in 1950 to defend Korea, the Cuban missile crisis, and the 1965 decision to send troops to the Dominican Republic as being examples.

Loyalties reduces hostility between states. The zero-sum game situation is avoided. The greater the number of states, the less the attention any one nation can devote to another, so this can limit conflict. Rosencrance suggests that an eleven-state world would avoid serious conflict. 41 Whilst the number of conflicts may be reduced, the significance will not be. Numerous frictions may still exist. The attention of each actor is dispersed throughout the system, but the interests of each actor correspondingly multiply.

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