By Carl Bamford, Paul Curran

The textual content is an creation to information constructions, records and databases applicable to be used as a moment 12 months BSc Computing textual content, or for the ultimate yr of a HND computing device experiences direction. It presents the reader with an creation to the strategies and underlying thought utilized in the layout of established information. Revised and prolonged, with extra chapters on SQL and 4GL's.

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1 were unchanged, the program would not work correctly. The program would successfully read the values one by one, no matter how many values are held on each line, but would fail to detect the end of file. If the last integer value were followed by an end-of-line marker (as it should be in a true TEXT file), the Boolean EOF would not be TRUE immediately after the last value was read. 6 7 I EOLN I I "ioF file position after last value is read The WHILE loop would be executed one more time, and an attempt made to read another integer.

The procedure call PUT(OutFile) will copy the component from the file buffer to the output file. WRITE and WRITELN work by copying values into the file buffer and using the PUT procedure. The procedures GET and PUT can be used directly from a program and values can be moved from and into the file buffers. They could be used instead of the WRITE and READ procedures, except that they make no provision for converting data held in variables of a compatible type. 3 is an example which uses the flle buffer and the GET operation on an input text file.

The records are then in sequential order. In this example, two further merge passes are required. 13. 13 Final two merge passes. In the general case, the original data file with n records could hold a single string (when the data is already in order) or as many as n strings (when it is in reverse order). If the data is randomly ordered, we can estimate the average length of the strings. Half of them should have length 1. A quarter should have length 2, an eighth length 3 and so on. This leads to the estimate of the average length as 2 which means that an average of n/2 strings is expected.

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