By R Winston Revie; Herbert Henry Uhlig

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1 Calomel Reference Electrode The calomel reference electrode has long been a standard reference electrode used in the laboratory. It consists of mercury in equilibrium with Hg 2+ 2 , the activity of which is determined by the solubility of Hg2Cl2 (mercurous chloride, or calomel). 268 V One design of electrode is illustrated in Fig. 4. Pure mercury covers a platinum wire sealed through the bottom of a glass tube. The mercury is covered with powdered mercurous chloride, which is only slightly soluble in potassium chloride solution, the latter filling the cell.

Copper and brass condenser tubes, for example, are subject to this type of attack. Fretting corrosion, which results from slight relative motion (as in vibration) of two substances in contact, one or both being metals, usually leads to a series of pits at the metal interface. Metal-oxide debris usually fills the pits so that only after the corrosion products are removed do the pits become visible. Cavitation–erosion is the loss of material caused by exposure to cavitation, which is the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles at a dynamic metal–liquid interface—for example, in rotors of pumps or on trailing faces of propellers.

7. Sketch of deepest pit in relation to average metal penetration and the pitting factor. type of corrosion called impingement attack, or sometimes corrosion-erosion. Copper and brass condenser tubes, for example, are subject to this type of attack. Fretting corrosion, which results from slight relative motion (as in vibration) of two substances in contact, one or both being metals, usually leads to a series of pits at the metal interface. Metal-oxide debris usually fills the pits so that only after the corrosion products are removed do the pits become visible.

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