By Michel Gobat

Michel Gobat deftly interweaves political, fiscal, cultural, and diplomatic heritage to research the reactions of Nicaraguans to U.S. intervention of their kingdom from the heyday of appear future within the mid–nineteenth century in the course of the U.S. profession of 1912–33. Drawing on broad learn in Nicaraguan and U.S. data, Gobat debts for 2 seeming paradoxes that experience lengthy eluded historians of Latin the US: that Nicaraguans so strongly embraced U.S. political, fiscal, and cultural types to protect their very own nationality opposed to U.S. imposition and that the country’s wealthiest and so much Americanized elites have been remodeled from top supporters of U.S. imperial rule into a few of its maximum opponents.

Gobat focuses totally on the reactions of the elites to Americanization, as the energy and id of those Nicaraguans have been the main considerably stricken by U.S. imperial rule. He describes their adoption of facets of “the American lifestyle” within the mid–nineteenth century as strategic instead of wholesale. Chronicling the U.S. profession of 1912–33, he argues that the anti-American flip of Nicaragua’s such a lot Americanized oligarchs stemmed principally from the efforts of U.S. bankers, marines, and missionaries to unfold their very own model of the yank dream. partly, the oligarchs’ reversal mirrored their soreness over the Nineteen Twenties upward push of Protestantism, the “modern woman,” and different “vices of modernity” emanating from the U.S.. however it additionally spoke back to the accidental ways in which U.S. modernization efforts enabled peasants to weaken landlord energy. Gobat demonstrates that the U.S. career so profoundly affected Nicaragua that it helped engender the Sandino uprising of 1927–33, the Somoza dictatorship of 1936–79, and the Sandinista Revolution of 1979–90.

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So controversial was the social exclusivity of Granada’s Americanized oligarchy that it became a key target of nationalist campaigns waged by Nicaraguans who did not belong to it. S. imperial rule could inadvertently ‘‘democratize’’ rural society, since nowhere else in Nicaragua was land more concentrated than in this elite bastion. Already in the era of Spanish colonialism (1520s–1820), the fertile and well-irrigated plains of Granada were home to large rural properties, particularly cattle, sugar, cacao, and indigo estates.

Ideals of modernity. In short, Part III explains why dollar diplomacy’s most vociferous opponents fervently clung to the ‘‘American dream,’’ while the region’s most infamous pro-Americans turned against the dream’s modernizing impulse. S. imperial rule revolutionized Nicaraguan politics. S. e√orts to use the military to impose its ideals of democracy in Nicaragua. S. outlook and embrace quasi-fascist ideals. Chapter 9 explores Nicaraguans’ ambivalent attitudes toward the Sandino Rebellion of 1927–33.

S. settlers to Nicaragua. S. S. S. envoy who visited the isthmus in 1849–50 in order to secure the interoceanic canal project for his country. S. immigration. ’’≥∑ Of course, Squier’s presentation of Nicaraguan opinions must be taken with caution. In particular, he underestimated the extent to which prominent Conservatives worried about the potential threat the United States posed to their nation’s sovereignty. S. S. S. invasion of Mexico, stated the ‘‘cause of Mexico is, we may say, our 28 . S.

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