By Thomas A Scott, E. Ian Mercer

Comprises a few 4,500 entries and approximately 1,000 figures, formulation, and tables. Entries contain citations of contemporary literature. This 3rd version deals many new entries reflecting advances within the realizing of molecular and mobile biology, metabolic pathways, and the selection of macromolecular st

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A. are structurally related to proteogenic A. a. Thus, more than 20 nonprotein A. a. are known which differ from alanine by substitution of one hydrogen of the methyl group. Nonprotein A. a. a. g. azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, a toxic constituent of lily of the valley, is a structural analog of proline, in which the ring is contracted by one C-atom. In lily of the vally, uncontrolled incorporation of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid into the plant's own protein is avoided by the highly specific synthesis of prolyl-tRNA, but in other organisms azetidine-2-carboxylic acid is incorporated in place of proline, leading to marked alterations in the tertiary structure and biological activity of proteins.

A. with neutral, hydrophobic (nonpolar) side chains. II. A . a. with neutral and hydrophilic (polar) side chains. III. A . a. with acid and hydrophilic (polar) side chains. IV. A. a. with basic and hydrophilic (polar) side chains. In addition to this chemical classification, A . a. can be divided according to their degradation into glucogenic and ketogenic A . a. Glucogenic A. a. are degraded to C 4 -dicarboxylic acids or pyruvate, which are intermediates in the tricarboxyic acid cycle. This cycle provides oxaloacetate for Gluconeogenesis (see), so that the carbon chains f r o m this group of A.

Coli and human intestine. All the human isoforms of alanine aminopeptidase arise from a single gene product, and the observed heterogeneity is due to three types of post-translational modification: glycation, limited proteolysis and aggregation with other molecules. Aminopeptidase Ρ is present in the microvillar membranes of pig and human kidney, and membrane-bound forms are also present in rat intestine and lung, bovine lung and guinea pig kidney. Soluble forms occur in rat serum and brain, human platelets and guinea pig serum, and it has also been characterized from human leukocytes.

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