By Knut Andreas Bergsvik, Robin Skeates
Caves in Context offers the thriving inter-disciplinary box of cave reviews with a European-scale survey of present learn in cave archaeology. it truly is unified via a latest theoretical emphasis at the cultural importance and variety of caves over house and time. Caves and rockshelters are came upon far and wide Europe, and feature often been occupied by means of human teams, from prehistory correct as much as the current day. a few seem to have simply lines of brief occupations, whereas others comprise deep cultural deposits, indicating longer and a number of occupations. principally, there's nice variability of their human use, either secular and sacred. the purpose of this e-book is to discover the a number of significances of those ordinary areas in quite a number chronological, spatial, and cultural contexts throughout Europe. the quantity demonstrates, via a variety of archaeological methods and examples, that cave reviews, whist unavoidably focussed, can be of value to wider, modern, archaeological examine agendas, really while a contextual method is followed. The publication is additionally of relevance to different students operating within the similar fields of speleology, earth sciences, panorama reports, and anthropology, which jointly include the inter-disciplinary box of cave stories.
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Additional resources for Caves in Context: The Cultural Significance of Caves and Rockshelters in Europe
Wild boar and seal represent 12 per cent each. Bøe reported that shells were relatively frequent in the Mesolithic layers, particularly mussels, and also common periwinkle and other gastropods (Bøe 1934, 13–19). Isolated human bones, from the foot, hand and finger were found at diﬀerent places in the Mesolitic layer. On the basis of the faunal data, Olsen argues that the site was probably occupied during the summer months. This is supported by recent analyses of otholiths from the site (Hufthammer et al.
Only a small percentage of fragmented faunal material collected at the site has been determined to species, but all of the bones are from cloven-footed mammals and two of them most likely from reindeer or red deer. 21. Barka rockshelter is situated on the coast at Strand, Rogaland, relatively high above the shore of Idsefjorden, underneath a large boulder. It was excavated in 2009 (Eilertsen 2010). The presence of scalene triangles indicates that it may have been used as early as about 8000 cal BC.
Open air sites are generally much larger. At Skatestraumen, Fosnstraumen, and Bømlo the average site sizes are 315m2, 355m2, and 1245m2 respectively (Bergsvik 1991, 163; 2002:101–102; Kristoﬀersen and Warren 2001). Thickness of layers might also be used to quantify this diﬀerence. Most of the caves and rockshelters have Mesolithic deposits that are between 20 and 50cm thick. Four shelters have deposits which are thicker than 100cm. At Fosnstraumen the maximum average layer thickness of the 18 surveyed Mesolithic sites is 40cm (Bergsvik 1991, 163), which is about the same as the shelters.