By D. H. Bergel

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PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY 37 introduced; if the external gauge is properly filled the waveforms obtained by both instruments should be similar. If possible the catheter should be advanced to the ventricles where the pressure excursions are maximal. The internal gauge may be subject to drift and its calibration can be checked in this way. FIG. 13. An assembly for the static calibration of transducers. The pressure is read from a precision dial manometer. Pressure is raised to any desired level by the sphygmomanometer bulb; final adjustment of pressure can be made by fine compression of the metal bellows.

For many purposes a damping factor of 0-64 is desirable; the error in the amplitude is then less than 2 per cent u p to 67 per cent of the natural frequency and the phase-lag is tolerably linear over this range. When β is 0-64 the amount of overshoot in the transient test is 7 per cent, as shown in Fig. 6. If more exact estimates are required than are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, the Tables in Hansen (1949) should be consulted. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY 23 The simple analysis of the transducer-needle system as one with a single degree of freedom rests on a series of assumptions, the most significant of which concerns the fluid flow in the needle.

Note that the oscillations, occurring at 83 Hz, do not now take the form of a damped sinusoid and that therefore it cannot be maintained that the transducer and catheter form a simple single degree of freedom system. We now represent the catheter as an elastic tube of radius r and length /, containing a liquid of density p. The compliance, C, per unit length of catheter is AV/AP, where AV is increment of internal volume of catheter and AP is increment of pressure. The inertial effects of the fluid in the catheter may most usefully be quantitated by the fluid inertance, L, per unit length, ρ/nr .

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