By Prof. Dr. Gerhard Krauss(auth.)

Content material:
Chapter 1 The law of Gene Expression (pages 1–87):
Chapter 2 The legislation of Enzyme job (pages 89–114):
Chapter three constitution and serve as of sign Pathways (pages 115–149):
Chapter four Signaling via Nuclear Receptors (pages 151–177):
Chapter five G Protein?Coupled sign Transmission Pathways (pages 179–229):
Chapter 6 Intracellular Messenger components: “Second Messengers” (pages 231–268):
Chapter 7 Ser/Thr?Specific Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases (pages 269–309):
Chapter eight sign Transmission through Transmembrane Receptors with Tyrosine?Specific Protein Kinase task (pages 311–354):
Chapter nine sign Transmission through Ras Proteins (pages 355–381):
Chapter 10 Intracellular sign Transduction: The Protein Cascades of the MAP Kinase Pathways (pages 383–393):
Chapter eleven Membrane Receptors with linked Tyrosine Kinase job (pages 395–416):
Chapter 12 different Receptor sessions (pages 417–427):
Chapter thirteen law of the telephone Cycle (pages 429–468):
Chapter 14 Malfunction of Signaling Pathways and Tumorigenesis: Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes (pages 469–509):
Chapter 15 Apoptosis (pages 511–532):

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Extra info for Biochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation, Third Edition

Example text

A regulated transcription requires sequence-specific protein binding to regulatory sequences that can be be proximally or distally located. Regulatory sequences proximal to the core promotor are called Upstream Activating Sequences (UAS) or Upstream Repressing Sequences (URS), depending on whether the bound protein is an activator or a repressor of transcription. Regulatory sequences can also be located far from the promotor and are called enhancers if the cognate DNA-binding protein is a transcriptional activator.

The overwhelming majority of the promotors in E. coli are recognized and activated by r70-containing holoenzymes. Key elements of r70-dependent promotors are the TATA box, with the consensus sequence TATAAT 10 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site (pos. – 10), and the sequence TTGACA at the position – 35 (Fig. 18). Both sequences are necessary for the recognition of the promotor by r70. Structural analysis of the Thermus aquaticus RNA polymerase holoenzyme bound to DNA shows that all sequence-specific contacts with the core promotor are mediated by the sigma subunit (Murakami et al.

It is assumed that the binding of TFIID via TBP to the TATA box represents an important regulatory step in the recognition and selection of the promotor in vivo. The TAFs comprise at least 12 different proteins that fulfill numerous functions (review: Struhl and Moqtaderi, 1998, Albright and Tjian, 2000). On the one hand they are ascribed a structure-promoting function. Some of the TAFs display a high degree of homology to the histones H2A, H3 and H4. Their structure matches the canonical histone-fold dimer, and TAF-dimers are formed via the histone-fold.

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