By Heather Skirton

Advent to genetic healthcare -- Foundations in genetic technological know-how -- operating virtually in genetic healthcare -- operating professionally in genetic healthcare -- operating to aid households -- operating as an educator for households and pros -- operating as a researcher -- Autosomal-dominant inheritance -- Autosomal recessive inheritance -- X-linked inheritance -- Familial melanoma -- Chromosomal and non-traditional styles of inheritance -- Multifactorial inheritance and customary ailments

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Roger has no family history of cystic fibrosis, so his chance of being a carrier is the same as for others in the general population—a chance of 1 in 20. The chance of you having child with cystic fibroasis is or less than 1%. We did discuss genetic carrier testing to try and refine this risk for you and you were both going to think about that before we meet again next week. In the meantime, I will ask the laboratory to send me your parents’ test results to help us interpret any future test you may have.

The practitioner should use his or her discretion as to whether the information is useful in determining a health risk to the consultand or other family members. 7. To ensure confidentiality between different branches of the family, a new family tree can be drawn when counseling people from each branch of the family. This enables the practitioner to determine what information is shared and therefore avoid breaching confidentiality. 8. After completing the tree, the client should be asked whether there is any information that he or she feels is important that has not been included.

The role of genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been effectively demonstrated by studies of twins, particularly in cases in which the twins have been raised separately. When twins are 100% concordant with respect to a condition, the effect must be due to an inherited factor, probably a single gene, but when there is a level of discordance, the role of the environment must be questioned. Whereas traits such as height and intelligence are continuous variables, other binary traits (that is, the person does or does not have the characteristic) may be subject to a threshold effect.

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