By P. Oktor Skjærvø

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Achaemenid art and archeology. 2. Secondary sources: Greek sources: Herodotus and others. Since the Old Persian inscriptions only start with Darius I,1 information about history and religion before this period—including, of course everything about the Medes and other early Iranian tribes, such as the Scythians—has to be sought in other sources . 1 The Old Persian inscriptions ascribed to his predecessors: Cyrus, Ariaramnes, and Arsames all date from after Darius; the Old Persian version of Cyrus’s inscriptions at Pasargadae may have been added under the later Achaemenids, and those of Ariaramnes and Arsames may be modern fabrications.

Mary Boyce argues for the first solution by simply pointing out that there are no indications in our sources that there was any kind of religious reform at that time; and so it would be a plausible conclusion that by the 6th century the Avesta was known in western Iran and that from Darius on, at least, the Avesta was bodily in Persis. On the whole, this seems to be the better solution, although other scenarios are thinkable. If, for instance, the religion was brought by Persian conquerors, there would be no reform, just the superimposition of their religion upon that of the conquered, and there are indications (in the genealogy) that this may be the case.

She is therefore the counterpart of the celestial Order, with which she is frequently associated, and this couple therefore corresponds loosely to the Old Indic couple Heaven and Earth. P. O. ”1 More probably, its meaning is “humility” and refers to the earth’s “humble” role as the daughter and spouse of Ahura Mazdâ. ” Hence the ritual action of “homage” (nemah), that is, bending down to the earth, is regularly associated with Ãrmaiti. Wholeness and Non-dyingness (haurwatât and amertatât, Pahlavi Hordad and Amurdad) These two refer to the fact of not having defects and blemishes and not dying before one’s time.

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