By Florence E. Babb

Nicaragua's Sandinista revolution (1979-1990) initiated a large application of social transformation to enhance the placement of the operating type and negative, girls, and different non-elite teams via agrarian reform, restructured city employment, and vast entry to wellbeing and fitness care, schooling, and social companies. This ebook explores how Nicaragua's least strong voters have fared within the years because the Sandinista revolution, as neoliberal governments have rolled again those state-supported reforms and brought measures to advertise the advance of a market-driven economy.

Drawing on ethnographic learn carried out through the Nineteen Nineties, Florence Babb describes the unfavorable outcomes that experience the go back to a capitalist course, specially for girls and low-income voters. moreover, she charts the expansion of women's and different social pursuits (neighborhood, lesbian and homosexual, indigenous, formative years, peace, and environmental) that experience taken benefit of new openings for political mobilization. Her ethnographic pix of a low-income barrio and of women's craft cooperatives powerfully hyperlink neighborhood, cultural responses to nationwide and worldwide processes.

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Here I discuss those emergent social movements that have gone beyond the party-based organizations of the past decade, raising a number of issues that relate to cultural identity, democratization, and human rights. To different degrees, I examine the neighborhood, women’s, lesbian and gay, indigenous, youth, peace, and environmental movements, as well as a formerly Sandinista Introduction: Writing after Revolution 21 trade union organization, as these have been influential in calling for a new way of doing politics.

To a degree there appear to be differences, with intellectuals and middle-class individuals playing some key roles in emergent movements, and certainly the poorest individuals may have too little time and too little hope to be politically active. Nevertheless, Nicaraguans from the working-class and popular sectors participate in various activities and hold leadership positions in a number of women’s centers. My research offers some additional examples of women’s grassroots participation in social movements, including the women of two Managua cooperatives whom I met first at the Festival of the 52 Percent.

Its editor reflected on Nicaraguan identity in relation to democratic reconciliation and national development. She went on to criticize the earlier notion that cultural diversity stood in the way of “modernization,” and called for dialogue across differences. The Marxist economist Peter Marchetti (1995), among others, referred to national identity as the key question that emerged at the end of the century and that was likely to remain key in the next decades. He argued that addressing issues of both identity and economic development will be fundamental in Nicaragua if it is to meet the needs of its diverse population.

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