By D. O. Hall, P. J. de Groot (auth.), Karl W. Böer (eds.)

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The Gulf states have the financial resources from oil, but limited arable land, while Egypt is well endowed with labor, but is short of land. In principle, pooling labor and resources, the region could overcome many of the inequalities of distribution of these resources. 6 India The "green revolution" has increased India's agricultural production dramatically. India once needed the largest donations of food aid, but now has surpluses of food. 10). In the past 30 years the area planted has more than doubled to 23 M ha.

96 In the next two decades, increased yields accounted for a large part of the increased world grain production. These higher yields enabled an almost 90% increase in production in the 1960's, with much higher productivity in the developed. world than in the developing world. The 1970's saw yields rise by just over 70%, but now the increases were found primarily in the developing countries. This greater productivity was achieved by application of the full range of agricultural technology, including fertilizers, higher yielding varieties, pesticideimproved production practices, and irrigation.

It is predicted that harvests of this size could become the norm by 1990. 3 t/ha, a four-fold increase over 1935 production. 1 t/ha in 1980. 22 57,016 Wheat 17 Major Crops 1938-40 252,033 1958-60 391,388 1978-80 610,293 Adapted from reference 66. peanuts, beans, flaxseed, potatoes, sugar beet, hay, corn silage and tobacco) in 40 years went from 252 Mt to 610 NIt, an increase of some 242%. Maize yields alone went up by 251 % during this period. , 37 Mt) of the 1980 maize harvest of 185 NIt is due to heterosis in hybrid maize.

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