By Dennis J. Stanford, Bruce A. Bradley
Who have been the 1st people to inhabit North the USA? based on the now usual tale, mammal hunters entered the continent a few 12,000 years in the past through a land bridge that spanned the Bering Sea. specified stone instruments belonging to the Clovis tradition validated the presence of those early New international humans. yet are the Clovis instruments Asian in foundation? Drawing from unique archaeological research, paleoclimatic examine, and genetic stories, famous archaeologists Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley problem the outdated narrative and, within the method, counter traditional--and usually subjective--approaches to archaeological checking out for old relatedness. The authors practice rigorous scholarship to a speculation that areas the technological antecedents of Clovis in Europe and posits that the 1st american citizens crossed the Atlantic by means of boat and arrived prior to formerly notion. delivering archaeological and oceanographic proof to aid this statement, the booklet dismantles the previous paradigm whereas persuasively linking Clovis know-how with the tradition of the Solutrean those that occupied France and Spain greater than 20,000 years in the past.
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Additional resources for Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture
Wild boar and seal represent 12 per cent each. Bøe reported that shells were relatively frequent in the Mesolithic layers, particularly mussels, and also common periwinkle and other gastropods (Bøe 1934, 13–19). Isolated human bones, from the foot, hand and finger were found at diﬀerent places in the Mesolitic layer. On the basis of the faunal data, Olsen argues that the site was probably occupied during the summer months. This is supported by recent analyses of otholiths from the site (Hufthammer et al.
Only a small percentage of fragmented faunal material collected at the site has been determined to species, but all of the bones are from cloven-footed mammals and two of them most likely from reindeer or red deer. 21. Barka rockshelter is situated on the coast at Strand, Rogaland, relatively high above the shore of Idsefjorden, underneath a large boulder. It was excavated in 2009 (Eilertsen 2010). The presence of scalene triangles indicates that it may have been used as early as about 8000 cal BC.
Open air sites are generally much larger. At Skatestraumen, Fosnstraumen, and Bømlo the average site sizes are 315m2, 355m2, and 1245m2 respectively (Bergsvik 1991, 163; 2002:101–102; Kristoﬀersen and Warren 2001). Thickness of layers might also be used to quantify this diﬀerence. Most of the caves and rockshelters have Mesolithic deposits that are between 20 and 50cm thick. Four shelters have deposits which are thicker than 100cm. At Fosnstraumen the maximum average layer thickness of the 18 surveyed Mesolithic sites is 40cm (Bergsvik 1991, 163), which is about the same as the shelters.