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Additional resources for A Patt. for Joint Opns - WWII Close Air Spt. North Africa

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Gen. George S.

Today "strategic elements" would be regarded as deep battlefield interdiction. 52 They had accepted the necessity for command decisions being made at a theater or task force level of command, but they gave this unity-of-command concept another twist when talking about joint air-ground operations. Arnold advocated the "principle of command," where the air commander would have "direct command of the tactical operations" of the air forces in air operations. During July 1942 he articulated the concept of "direct command" in a memo to Maj.

Thomas T. Handy, the assistant chief of staff for operations. Arnold argued that the air commander was the specialist and that he should have control over his particular operations. He cited Maj. Gen. M. F. " It is not clear how much of Arnold's concept meshed with the idea of a task force concept of Eisenhower, but Eisenhower came to accept great independence among his commanders. He saw his air, ground, and naval chiefs having a dual role. l° As the vagaries of war would have it, the Combined Chiefs of Staff did not establish a clear directive for Eisenhower until the last few weeks before the invasion was to take place.

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